We gratefully acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health for the majority of our data collection. Over the past several decades, we acknowledge NSF support from IOS 1926060, IOS 1456832, IOS 1053461, DEB 1405308, IOS 0919200, DEB 0846286, DEB 0846532, IBN 0322781, IBN 0322613, BCS 0323553, BCS 0323596, IBN 9985910, IBN 9422013, IBN 9729586, IBN 9996135, and IBN 9985910. At NIH, we are grateful for support from the National Institute on Aging (R61AG078470, R01AG075914, R01AG053308, R01AG071684, R01AG053330, R21AG055777, P01AG031719, R21AG049936, R03AG045459, R01AG034513), the National Institute of Child Health and Development (R01HD088558), and the Princeton Center for the Demography of Aging (P30AG024361). Current support for field-based data collection comes from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Finally, we thank Duke University, Princeton University, the University of Notre Dame, the Chicago Zoological Society, the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, the L.S.B. Leakey Foundation and the National Geographic Society for support at various times over the years.


Logistical and research assistance in Kenya

For assistance and cooperation in Kenya, we are very grateful to the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), the Wildlife Research Training Institute (WRTI), University of Nairobi, Institute of Primate Research (IPR), National Museums of Kenya, National Environment Management Authority, and National Commission for Science, Technology, and Innovation (NACOSTI). In Kenya, our research was approved by WRTI, KWS, NACOSTI, and NEMA. We also thank the members of the Amboseli-Longido pastoralist communities, the Enduimet Wildlife Management Area, Tortilis Camp, Ker & Downey Safaris, Serena Lodge, Air Kenya, and Safarilink. Without their support and presence in Amboseli, we would not be able to carry out the work. Finally, Vera Somen, Mercy Akinyi, Tim Wango, and Vivian Oudo have provided untiring assistance in Nairobi with everything from official permits to storing personal belongings; Tim and Vivian have also played a critical role in managing, preparing, and shipping biological samples for the research.


Data collection

A number of people have contributed to the long-term data collection over the years, and we are grateful to all of them for their dedication and contributions. Particular thanks go to the Amboseli Baboon Project long-term field team, which consists of Raphael S. Mututua, Serah N. Sayialel, J. Kinyua Warutere, I. Long’ida Siodi, and Lilian Musembei, and also to Amy Samuels and Stuart Altmann for their many contributions not only to data collection but to protocol design and project infrastructure. We thank Edward Kariuki for his veterinary assistance over many years. Important contributions to the long term data have also been made by C. Fitzpatrick, G. Hausfater, B.J. King, J. Mann, C. Markham, P. Muruthi, N. Nguyen, B. Noë, R. Noë, P.O. Onyango, M. Pereira, D. Post,, T. Reed, C. Saunders, J. Shopland, J.B. Silk, S. Sloane, K. Smith, P. Stacey, D. Stein, J. Stelzner, K. Strier, and J. Walters. Gideon Marinka, Christmas Mutenkere, Benard Oyath, and Lankoi “Alex” ole Meloimet have provided long-term assistance in the field, and Lenkai “Nkii” ole Rikoyan, Moonyoi ole Parsetau, Sakimba Mpute, and Ninguri ole Likam Kanai have provided expert support in camp.  


Database design and management

Karl Pinc has provided expertise in database design and management for many years and we are very grateful for his seminal contributions to the development of Babase, the Baboon Project database. Our two current, excellent database managers, Jake Gordon and Niki Learn, make it possible for us to use the data. We also thank the database managers and technicians who have provided assistance with Babase in the past, particularly K. Drysdale, T. Fenn, L. Gerber, C. Markham, L. Maryott, A. Mosser, D. Onderdonk, P. Onyango, and J. Zayas.


Ethics statement

Our research is approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUC) at Duke University, the University of Notre Dame, and Princeton University and the Ethics Council of the Max Planck Society. We adhere to all the laws and guidelines of Kenya, and to the Guidelines for the Treatment of Animals in Behavioural Research and Teaching established by the Animal Behaviour Society (2012, Animal Behaviour v. 83(1): 301-309).